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Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra May 11, 2011

NOTE: if you are new to the website, please click here for a brief guide.

The time it takes to repair and re-connect depends on how frequent you undergo a check up. Remember to revisit your heart’s checklist [emotion, faith, intentions, etc] occasionally in order to shorten the time it needs to wholeheartedly repent and re-connect with Allah. Keep in mind though, this isn’t the only connection you’ll need to take care of…..

Al-Madd Al-Silah[1]the connecting prolongation directly relates to the grammatical rule regarding the [possessive] pronoun that represents a third party of male gender. This [possessive] pronoun is simply the addition of the letter haa ( هــ ) at the end of a word. Therefore the referred third party is not part of the original make up of the word. At the end of a word, the letter haa looks like this ( ــه ).

The purpose of this madd is to lengthen the dammah in order for it to sound like a waaw (و) or to lengthen the kasra to sound like a yaa (ي). Explanation below.

Al-madd al-silah separates into two types: kubra (longer) and sughra (lesser).

Al-madd al-silah al-sughra (the lesser connecting prolongation) has the following conditions:

– the madd becomes void if the reciter stops at the end of the word, sounding a haa saakin, i.e. you must continue to the next word in order to sound this madd

– the haa on the end of the word must not be part of the original word

– the haa sits between two voweled letters (two letters that have a diacritic on them – neither of the two can have a sukoon)

– the haa is not followed by a hamzah ( ء or أ )

– the haa is voweled with either a dammah or a kasra, but NOT a fat-ha

the dammah or kasra is lengthened for 2 counts only


Al-madd al-silah al-kubra (the longer/larger connecting prolongation) has the following conditions:

– the madd becomes void if the reciter stops at the end of the word, sounding a haa saakin, i.e. you must continue to the next word in order to sound this madd

– the haa on the end of the word must not be part of the original word

– the haa sits between two voweled letters (two letters that have a diacritic on them – neither of the two can have a sukoon)

– the haa must be followed by a hamzah ( ء or أ )

– the haa is voweled with either a dammah or a kasra, but NOT a fat-ha

– the dammah or kasra is lengthened for 4 -5 counts

Conditions 1, 2, 3, and 5 are the same for kubra and sughra.

Examples of al-madd al-silah sughra:

lahuu maa fee

‘ibaadihii khabeeraa

kitaabahuu waraa’a

Examples of al-madd al-silah kubra:

maalahooo akhladahu

haathiheee eemaanan

 

wathaaqahuuu ahadun

So did you notice anything similar throughout the examples?

Yes, something other than the fact they are all madd silah…🙂

Did you notice a little waaw and a little yaa after the [possessive] pronoun haa?

These little symbols make this madd too easy!

Notice on the madd silah kubra, all the little symbols have a madd above them).

Notice on the madd silah sughra, all the little symbols don’t have anything above or below!

As you read, just do a check. Does this haa have a little waaw or yaa after it? If so, then know it’s madd silah.

Does this little waaw or yaa have a madd squiggle on top? If so, then it’s a silah kubra, and stretch your yaa or waaw for 4 – 5 counts.

Simple! Right?

Before I close off this post, I want to note that there are some exemptions.

Two exemptions for silah sughra are as follow:

Here there is no madd although all the madd silah sughra conditions are met:

yardahu lakum

Here there is a madd although not all the madd silah sughra conditions are met (there is a harf saakin before the haa):

feehii muhaanan

Note 1: there is a third case where the possessive pronoun haa is feminine. In this case, madd silah is still done:

haathihii tathkiratun

Note 2: in case you wanted an example of when the haa is part of the original makeup of a word, here it is below:

fawaakihu wa hum mukramoona

All the conditions of madd silah are present (except the haa being unoriginal). It is because of this, that no madd silah is said.

Resources Link:

– ‘Jadwal Al-Mudood’, eighth madd listed

-Short and long vowels  [Gatway To Arabic: pages 21-23; and 44-47]

– ‘Tajweed Basics Foundations And More’ covers a range of mudood

Note, these documents are found on the resources page.

Related Posts: Ahkaam Al-Madd – Al-Madd Al-Tabee’ee – Al-Madd Al-Waajib Al-Mutasil – Al-Madd Al-Jaa’ez Al-Munfasil – Al-Madd Al-’Iwad – Al-Madd Al-Badal – Al-Madd Al-Leen – Al-Madd Al-‘Aarid Lil Sukoon – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Kalimee – Al-Madd Al-Laazim: Harfee.



[1] Al-Madd Al-Silah Al-Kubra wa Al-Sughra: المد الصلة الكبرى و الصغرى


 

3 Responses to “Al-Madd Al-Silah: Kubra & Sughra”

  1. m gaffar Says:

    have just read this section and it made perfect sense to me, the detail is just right, jazakallah for your help in making me understand, I hope you continue your good work.

  2. O H Says:

    Assalamalaykum. I had a query relating to the word fa’woo in this ayah http://quran.com/18/16. Which rule applies to this word? Does the madd extension have to be 4 or 2 is alright for this word. Jazaki Allaahu Khair.


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